chromosomes

QUESTION

1. What sub-phase of interphase will the cells in the zone of elongation be in and why? Your answer should be more elaborate than “the cell is/is not dividing.” 2. Why could the chromosomes be seen m

1. What sub-phase of interphase will the cells in the zone of elongation be in and why?  Your answer should be more elaborate than “the cell is/is not dividing.”

2. Why could the chromosomes be seen more clearly in prophase cells than in interphase cells?

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a. The nuclear envelope has broken down. b. The centrosomes are at the poles of the cell. c. The DNA has been condensed. d. The mitotic spindle has been assembled.

3. Why could the chromosomes be seen more clearly in prophase cells than in interphase cells?

a. The nuclear envelope has broken down. b. The centrosomes are at the poles of the cell. c.The DNA has been condensed. d.The mitotic spindle has been assembled.

4. During metaphase, the chromosomes are lined up at the_____of the cell.

Word Bank: poles    equator

5. What is each “half” of a chromosome (the “X”) called?  What happens to them in anaphase?

6. If the event you described in the previous question did not occur for one chromosome, how would the two daughter cells be genetically different?

7. Which of the following are part of telophase?  Select all that apply.

a. Chromosomes unwind into chromatin. b. The nuclear envelope is broken down. c. The mitotic spindle is degraded. d. The chromosomes is moved to the middle of the cell.

8. Cytokinesis is performed in both animal and plant cells.  In plant cells, a_____forms.  This divides the cytoplasm by____the middle of the cell.

Word Bank: pinching the cell membrane in   building a cell wall across   cleavage furrow     cell plate

9.Malignant tumors are different from benign tumors because malignant tumors perform metastasis.  Which of the following most accurately describes metastasis?

a. Cancer cells promote the growth of blood vessels towards them. b. Cancer cells spread to distant tissues and create a new tumor. c. Cancer cells divide uncontrollably because of genetic mutations. d. Cancer cells commit apoptosis (“programmed cell death”) to prevent the spread of the tumor.

10.Some types of chemotherapy target DNA.  Explain why cancer cells are particularly damaged by chemotherapy?  Include the specific event in mitosis that is responsible.

11.If a proto-oncogene is mutated into an oncogene, what message will be sent to the cell?

a. “Divide only at the right time” b. “Divide! Divide! Divide all the time!” c. “Don’t divide at the wrong time or I will make you commit apoptosis

12. What will happen in a cell that has an oncogene and normal tumor suppressor gene?

a. The cell will still divide at the normal rate but has a predisposition to becoming cancerous. b. The cell will destroy its nucleus and disrupt its ETC, leading to the cell’s death. c. The cell will divide uncontrollably.

13. What term best describes the outcome of a cell with a proto-oncogene and a silenced tumor suppressor gene?

a. Cancerous b. Healthy with a normal risk of becoming cancerous c. Apoptosis d. Predisposition to cancer.

14. If a cell has an oncogene and a silenced tumor suppressor gene, what will the result be?

a. Cancer b. Healthy cell with a predisposition to becoming cancerous c. Apoptosis dUnaffected healthy cell with a normal risk of becoming cancerous