# The main descriptive statistics used for discrete variables are frequency statistics. Since sex and ethnicity are discrete variables, their descriptive statistics are the frequency statistics.

Descriptive Statistics

Discrete variables

The main descriptive statistics used for discrete variables are frequency statistics. Since sex and ethnicity are discrete variables, their descriptive statistics are the frequency statistics.

Sex

 Sex Frequency Percent Male 36 50 Female 36 50 Total 72 100

The findings show that there was the number of female participants contained in the dataset was equal to the number of male participants in the data set.

Ethnicity

 Ethnicity Frequency Percent African American 23 31.9 Caucasian 31 43.1 Latino 14 19.4 Other 4 5.6 Total 72 100

The majority of the respondents in the dataset 31 (43,1%) were of Caucasian ethnicity. Respondents with African American ethnicity were 23 (43.1%) while those with Latino ethnicity were 14 (19.4%). 4 (5.6%) of the respondents in the dataset were from other ethnic groups.

Continuous variables

There are three classes of descriptive statistics for continuous variables that include measures of central tendency (mean, median, and mode), measures of dispersion (variance, standard deviation, and range), and shape statistics (skewness and kurtosis).

Age

 Age Mean 27.75 Standard Error 0.92452881 Median 25 Mode 24 Standard Deviation 7.844887094 Sample Variance 61.54225352 Kurtosis 0.217860957 Skewness 0.969218955 Range 31 Minimum 18 Maximum 49 Sum 1998 Count 72

The mean age of the respondents in the data set is 27.75. The median and mode of the respondents’ age is 25 and 24 respectively. The standard deviation, sample variance, and range of the respondents’ age in the dataset are 7.8449, 61.5423, and 31 respectively. The kurtosis and skewness of the age of the respondents are 0.2179 and 0.9692 respectively. The maximum age is 49 while the minimum age is 18. The histogram shows that the age is skewed to the right.

Recall1

 Recall1 Mean 7.527778 Standard Error 0.38097 Median 8 Mode 8 Standard Deviation 3.232634 Sample Variance 10.44992 Kurtosis -0.62492 Skewness -0.14209 Range 15 Minimum 0 Maximum 15 Sum 542 Count 72

The mean of Recall1 in the data set is 7.5278. The median and mode of the Recall1 are 8 and 8 respectively. The standard deviation, sample variance, and range of Recall1 in the dataset are 3.2326, 10.4499, and 15 respectively. The kurtosis and skewness of the Recall1 data are -0.6249 and -0.1421 respectively. The maximum value in the Recall1 data is 15 while the minimum value is 0. The histogram shows that Recall1 is skewed to the right.

References

Am, S., & Am, C. (2018). Descriptive Statistics. Europe4(4.5/37.6), 12-0.

Kaur, P., Stoltzfus, J., & Yellapu, V. (2018). Descriptive statistics. International Journal of Academic Medicine4(1), 60.

Sex

Frequency Male Female 36 36

Sex

Frequency

Ethinicity

Frequency African American Caucasian Latino Other 23 31 14 4

Ethinicity

Frequency

Histogram

Frequency 25.75 21.875 29.625 33.5 37.375 45.125 18 41.25 More 22 14 10 8 8 4 2 2 2 Cumulative % 25.75 21.875 29.625 33.5 37.375 45.125 18 41.25 More 0.30555555555555558 0.5 0.63888888888888884 0.75 0.86111111111111116 0.91666666666666663 0.94444444444444442 0.97222222222222221 1

Bin

Frequency

Histogram

Frequency 9.375 11.25 5.625 7.5 3.75 13.125 0 1.875 More 16 14 13 12 7 7 1 1 1 Cumulative % 9.375 11.25 5.625 7.5 3.75 13.125 0 1.875 More 0.22222222222222221 0.41666666666666669 0.59722222222222221 0.76388888888888884 0.86111111111111116 0.95833333333333337 0.97222222222222221 0.98611111111111116 1

Bin

Frequency